understanding the relationship between education and health

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understanding the relationship between education and health

The drop at high school graduation points to the importance of obtaining credentials in addition to the other benefits associated with educational attainment. The paper is intended to help inform and stimulate discussion. In this paper we review the health benefits associated with education, focusing on the primary mechanisms, both distal and proximate, by which education may be considered a driving force in health outcomes. Remaining jobs in the “tradable” sectors such as technology and finance increasingly require advanced skill sets (Spence and Hlatshwayo, 2011). De Maeseneer. 2003. 2009. Socioeconomic disparities in health behaviors. Adults with more education are less likely to experience unemployment and economic hardship and will have greater access to a variety of important material, financial and social resources. 2007. (In 2011, total state per pupil education expenditures ranged from $6,200 to $16,700; among the 100 largest school systems in the United States, per pupil funding ranges from $5,400 to almost $20,000 [Census Bureau, 2013]). �z �8H}1��t��_.���8b!���8�����~B�1��v�3ve! 2012. Moreover, through education one encounters and solves problems that are progressively more difficult, complex, and subtle, which builds problem-solving skills and confidence in the ability to solve problems” (Ross and Wu, 1995, p. 723). Bullard, R. D., G. S. Johnson, and A. O. Torres. As discussed earlier in this paper, reverse causality plays some role in the association, and a much larger influence comes from the downstream benefits of education (e.g., greater socioeconomic resources and personal skills), but the upstream influence of adverse experiences on the young child also cannot be ignored. The researchers reported a dose-response relationship: those who recalled four categories of ACEs faced significant odds ratios for adult diseases, including ischemic heart disease (2.2), cancer (1.9), stroke (2.4), chronic lung disease (3.9), and diabetes (1.6). 2005. Socioeconomic disparities in health in the United States: What the patterns tell us. One example of this is the importance of child-directed speech during infancy for language skills (Weisleder and Fernald, 2013). Death rates are declining among the most educated Americans, accompanied by steady or increasing death rates among the least educated (Jemal et al., 2008). The building evidence that stress and other contextual factors can have effects on both education and health throughout the life course—as in the lasting effects on development, behavior, learning, and health of children—adds important insights for understanding the correlation between education and health. 2011. The effects of stress can be reduced when children have a responsive and supportive caregiver available to help cope with stress and provide a protective effect (Shonkoff and Garner, 2012). Personality traits (also known as “soft” or noncognitive skills) are associated with success in later life, including employment and health. In. 2011. They concluded that these studies “demonstrated a substantial causal role for social conditions as causes of illness” (p. 83). Access to health food retailers—Unites States, 2011. The health implications of these financial barriers to health care are well documented: the uninsured are less likely to receive preventive care or help with disease management (HHS, 2013, p. 9-1), and they have a higher risk of death (IOM, 2003a). The links between education and health. Inequality by gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and disability affect risks and opportunities for people throughout the world. NAM Perspectives. 2011. Impact of incarceration on community public safety and public health. Rosas-Salazar, C., A. J. Apter, G. Canino, and J. C. Celedon. An inadequate education markedly increases the risk of unemployment. Berkman, L. F., T. Glass, I. Brissette, T. E. Seeman. The collective dynamics of smoking in a large social network. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2010 BRFSS data. The unemployed also reported more physically and mentally unhealthy days in the past 30 days [Athar et al., 2013]). Kanny, D., Y. Liu, R. D. Brewer, and H. Lu. 2006. Understanding the Relationship Between Education and Health. Women’s earnings as a percent of men’s in 2010. Effects that appear to occur at the neighborhood level may represent aggregated individual characteristics (compositional effects), neighborhood variability (contextual effects), or local manifestations of larger-scale processes (e.g., higher-level planning or regulatory decisions) (Shankardass and Dunn, 2011). Kaplan, G. A., T. W. Wilson, R. D. Cohen, J. Kauhanen, M. Wu, and J. T. Salonen. Effect of cross-level interaction between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on adult mortality rates. (According to 2006–2008 data, the lifetime earnings of a Hispanic male are $870,275 for those with less than a ninth-grade education but $2,777,200 for those with a doctoral degree. African-Americans’ perceptions of health care provider cultural competence that promote HIV medical self-care and antiretroviral medication adherence. 2013. Personal control can impact individuals’ attitudes and behaviors, potentially including health behaviors. This division has continued during recovery from the Great Recession, during the first three years of which 95 percent of income gains accrued to the top 1 percent of earners (Saez, 2013). Although there are many methodological challenges in estimating community-level effects on individuals (Kawachi and Berkman, 2003; Kawachi and Subramanian, 2007), communities may confer a range of benefits or risks that can impact health. 2008. (According to 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System [BRFSS] data, 27 percent of adults with less than a high school education reported not being able to see a physician because of cost, compared to 18 percent and 8 percent of high school and college graduates, respectively [CDC, 2014]). Rhodes, T., K Wagner, S. A. Strathdee, K. Shannon, P. Davidson, and P. Bourgois. In. Family and neighborhood socioeconomic status not only affect education but also predict developmental and health trajectories as children grow and develop (Case et al., 2002; Duncan et al.,1994). Taras, H., and W. Potts-Datema. Boote, J., R. Telford, and C. Cooper. ?��|�~�{�����S�����?>����~{x���[x����7�tw��p�xʱ���K��x�!�x����{W{�W|������6��m�O���PF��=׽�p~:�g_�8�/��X�/�j9�~K�5�2�Y�aq)��� o��ޛo�ʞ-d�s>�}N�G�{���.�eŷ�^����moJ���>�{ K؝.����p�.�I�?f('n�Gm��8���L��S=(���ia쩸�����. Karlamangla, A. S., H. S. Burton, and T. E. Seeman. Given the wide range of methodologies and data sources utilized, findings are not uniform among such studies, but there is general agreement that a relatively modest neighborhood effect exists independent of individual and family-level factors (Kawachi and Berkman, 2003; Leventhal and Brooks-Gunn, 2000; Steptoe and Feldman, 2001).

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